SPORTS AND CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY
The great increase in recent years of people who practice some sport has conditioned a significant increase in injuries or skin diseases. The factors that most influence when it comes to developing skin injuries or diseases are, first of all, the type of skin we have, the constitutional habit, the environment where sports practice takes place and, finally, the sport that is performed. Skin injuries related to sports practice can be classified into: 1.-Mechanical injuries: Those caused by direct trauma. -Hemorrhagic: Athlete's nail, due to small injuries to the nail of the big toe; heel black, bluish-black pigmentation on posterolateral aspect of heels. They are painless injuries caused by continuous microtrauma. They do not require treatment. -Blisters and erosions: Vesicles and blisters due to friction, due to violent and repetitive friction on the same point when a protective callus has not yet been produced. Avoid its appearance by protecting and lubricating the areas of friction well. -Acute inflammatory lesions: Long-distance runner's nipple, due to rubbing of the shirt on the nipple. Prevent it with the use of Vaseline. -Reactive injuries: Surfer's nodule, in the anterior part of the tibia due to kneeling; wrestler's ear, due to trauma and rubbing on the ears in contact sports such as wrestling, rugby...; calluses or calluses, as a natural response of the skin to chronic friction.
2.-Skin infections: Impetigo, bacterial infection in the form of vesicles and blisters favored by humid and warm environments, such as swimming pools; athlete's foot, exudative, macerated and foul-smelling lesions between the toes. Infections require evaluation by a doctor for diagnosis and treatment. 3.-Allergic contact dermatitis: Allergy to chrome present in some sports shoes; nickel and cobalt in weights and weightlifting bars and other metallic objects; rubbers in diving equipment, knee pads, elbow pads, etc. 4.-Skin lesions due to environmental causes: insect bites, jellyfish bites in swimmers, scabies in horsemen, burns caused by the sun, actinic keratitis due to prolonged exposure to the sun for years without protection, as well as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas; perniosis or chilblains caused by cold in distal parts such as hands, feet, ears and nose; freezing in mountaineers, etc... The most important thing to avoid the appearance of all the skin pathologies that can arise with the practice of sports is to use quality footwear and sportswear appropriate to each sport, have adequate hygiene and protect ourselves from the sun with creams and lip balms when practicing sports. take place outdoors.